The internet has changed often since it first became freely accessible in the 1990s, and one of the most suspect developments is the growth of the so-called ‘Dark Web. ha
Adults may take into account young people visiting the ‘Dark Web’, especially as press dark web reports often link them with dangerous or illegal online activity. However, there are some gains to them – like everything online, problems do not come from the technology itself, but instead are caused by the ways in which people use it.
Thinking about the basic information about these parts of the internet can help you give realistic and honest support to young people if you are concerned they are using them.
Here’s a short explainer on the ‘Dark Web’, how it can be accessed and what are the risks.
The ‘Open Web’
This is the freely visible the main internet that most of us use each day, and is accessed through search engines such as Google or Google.
The ‘Deep Web’
This is the the main internet which is generally hidden from public view. It are not access via the typical search engines and is reached in other, less widely-known ways.
The majority of the ‘Deep Web’ comprises listings which can be accessed safely over the ‘Open Web’. For
example, listings associated with hotel bookings, online purchases, medical records, banking yet others. The content can only be read by authorised people (such as employees) and is protected using account details.
The ‘Dark Web’
When most people go online, they do so via a computer or device that has an IP (Internet Protocol) address — a unique online identity.
An IP address enables networks to send the right information to the right place — for example, making sure a contact reaches its destination. Ones own internet activity can be monitored and administered using their IP address.
The ‘Dark Web’ uses complex systems that anonymise a customer’s true IP address, making it very difficult to sort out which websites a tool has visited. It is generally accessed using dedicated software, the best known is called Tor (The Onion Router).
Around 2. 5 million people use Tor every day. Tor itself is not the ‘Dark Web’ but instead is a method by which to browse the Open and Dark Web without anyone being able to identify the user or track their activity.
How does Tor work?
Tor provides anonymising software which can be accessed via the search engines and then down loaded free of charge.
Tor wraps the sender’s message in layers of encryption – rather like the layers of an onion, which is how the system got its name.
Searches or messages sent via the Tor web browser do not go right to their intended destination. Instead, they are relayed through “nodes, ” which are other computers managed by Tor users. At each node, a layer of encryption is flourished and the message is then sent about the next. Each node knows the identity of the previous node and this comes next, but does not know the others in the archipelago. Therefore it’s extremely difficult to track a message’s entire journey or to sort out where it started and who sent it.
Why do people use the ‘Dark Web’?
There are three significant reasons why people might use the ‘Dark Web’:
People may have many reasons for protecting their online identity. In some cases, this is because they would be in danger if their identity became known – for example in countries where the government forbids a free press or where there is political censorship.
Others might use it to reduce their risk of falling victim to crime, such as people who have been cyberstalked or who are concerned about the security of online banking.
Tor is used for individuals to look at open web anonymously, a very small percentage of its traffic relates to Hidden Services (below).
- Accessing ‘Hidden Services’
A hidden Service (also known as an ‘onion service’) is one where not only the user, but also the website itself, have their anonymity protected by Tor. This means that the IP address of the site cannot be identified, which means that information about its host, location or content is hidden. Hidden Services are sometimes called “onion addresses” because the url of your website often ends. onion.
Tor itself is not a hidden Service, but the sites it hosts are. Hidden Services can be used properly, for example for whistleblowing in order to allow members of the public to share with you sensitive information such as knowledge about offenses without the risk of reprisals. However it is generally believed that almost all Hidden Services contain illicit material. They often times require registration (username, security password etc) and some have ‘VIP’ sections, accessible only by an invite from the managers or via an application created by the member and approved by the managers.
- Illegal activity.
The Dark Web may be used by people wishing to use illegal activities online, such as selling tools or drugs. These kinds of operations, and the websites offering them, are often referred to as Hidden Services (above).
Is it legal?
Using Tor or visiting the Dark Web are not outlawed in themselves. It is of course illegal to use illegal acts anonymously, such as accessing child abuse images, promoting terrorism, or selling illegal items such as tools.
What are the risks?
Often, the risks of the ‘Dark Web’ are the same as those that may be encountered in the ‘Open Web’. Young people in both environments may access pornography, indecent images of children, or sites selling drugs and tools.
Young people are also susceptible to exploitation and abuse by sex offenders who use all parts of the internet to a target subjects. However, there is evidence to show that offenders may interact with subjects on the ‘Open Web’ than on the ‘Dark Web’. The Dark Web is more commonly employed by sex offenders to freely discuss ‘tactics’ to exploit young people and share material generated as a result of their harmful. It is also harder for law enforcement to research online abuse that occurs in the unknown parts of the internet.
I’ve just learned that an adolescent person is using Tor. What must i do?
It’s important to keep an awareness of perspective. There are many positive reasons for using Tor, and they don’t automatically mean that an adolescent person does anything dangerous or illegal.
Having open and honest talks is essential to helping young people develop safer behaviours online. Explain that there is a lot of illegal content in the dark Web, and you don’t want them to be exposed to this. Explore their inspirations for wanting to use Tor and discuss all options together — if, for example, their motivation is to increase their internet privacy there may be other avenues they could take that you both find more agreeable.
Many young people are concerned with political matters such as the freedom of the press. Schools might wish to use discussions of high-profile cases such as Wikileaks to bring this into the open, allowing you young people to ask questions and voice their opinions in a safe, supportive environment.
There are also some practical steps that can be taken to give young people some of the security they may feel the Dark Web offers:
Encourage young people to use privacy filtration systems on social media, think critically as to what they share online, and control who is on their friends and contacts lists. The things we share online, and who we share them with, has an affect our privacy, as well as aspects such as our google search history. Use the Thinkuknow website to explore strategies they can use to help them to stay safe online, as well as tips on managing their online lives.
Discuss the use of VPNs (Virtual Private Networks). People who are concerned about their privacy and security might use a VPN as they see this as an easy way of providing an additional layer of security to their online activities. When using a VPN, your details is safely encrypted and your computer will interact with the web like you’re connected elsewhere.
Make sure they know where to go if they come across something that worries them or makes them feel uncomfortable in a online environment. Help them to understand how you can report to CEOP if they are concerned about sexual abuse and exploitation online, and encourage them to come to you or another adult they trust if they are concerned about anything online.